LIMA, Peru — As protests consumed Peru this month, hundreds of foreign tourists were trapped near Machu Picchu, the ancient Incan site that has become the Andean country’s number one tourist attraction.
In recent days, though, visitors were finally able to travel home, followinga suspension of demonstrations that reopened the airport and nearby roads to allow for the passage of food and travelers.
But as they leave the country, prospective travelers cancel their trips and a new regional and perhaps national strike gets underway, the abrupt shutter of the tourism industry has dealt a serious blow to tens of thousands of Peruvians whose livelihoods rely on the travel economy.
It’s not just that “everybody started canceling,” said Nancy Bautista, 41, a tour guide with two children in the department of Cusco, home to Machu Picchu. As soon as the tourists left, protesters again closed roads in the surrounding region, creating shortages of fuel and food.
It’s just one example of the financial toll that more than 10 days of nationwide unrest has exacted on Peruvians. While Cusco felt calm on Monday, Ms. Bautista said, supplies of chicken in the city were dwindling. Beef was completely sold out. Gas prices shot up.
The challenge of providing essential goods is setting off widespread concern in a region where the worst drought in more than 50 years and high fertilizer prices are already creating food shortages.
In the department of Cusco, with a capital of the same name, high numbers of people struggle to get enough to eat, with nearly 20 percent of children under the age of 5 facing chronic malnutrition, according to government figures.
Cusco has approximately 2,000 tourism agencies, more than 1,000 hotels and 25 rural communities that rely on tourism, but the past few days have felt like the arduous visitor-less months of the pandemic, Ms. Bautista said.
“With all of this, it’s going back again to that time where everything was uncertain,” she added.
Historians believe that Machu Picchu, built by the Inca before the arrival of the Spanish, was constructed over the 15th century possibly as a royal estate or sacred religious site, though there is uncertainty over its exact purpose.
Understand the Political Turmoil in Peru
A tumultuous moment. Peru has been convulsed in recent years by political turmoil, rapid turnovers of presidents and constant scandals. Now the ouster of President Pedro Castillo has led to an outburst of violence in the fragile South American democracy. Here’s what to know:
Who is Pedro Castillo? The left-wing Peruvian president was elected in 2021 after campaigning on a promise to address the country’s chronic inequality. But in less than a year and a half in office, Mr. Castillo has been plagued by corruption scandals. On Dec. 7, Peru’s Congress voted to oust him after critics accused him of trying to carry out a coup.
Accusations against Castillo. Prosecutors accused Mr. Castillo of leading a criminal organization to profit from government contracts and of obstructing justice. Hours before lawmakers were scheduled to vote on impeachment, Mr. Castillo announced the dissolution of Congress and the installation of an emergency government to rule by decree.
Castillo’s impeachment. Mr. Castillo’s announcement prompted the mass resignation of much of his government and a statement from Peru’s armed forces and the police suggesting that he did not have the legal authority to carry out his decree. In a swift vote hours after his announcement, Congress voted to impeach Mr. Castillo. He was removed from office and arrested.
A new leader. Dina Boluarte, Mr. Castillo’s vice president and the new president of Peru, is now leading the country through its biggest political crisis in years. The crisis comes as Peru’s inflation rate is at its highest point in decades, raising the stakes of political dysfunction in a nation where a quarter of the population of 33 million lives in poverty.
Public unrest. After Ms. Boluarte took office, violent protests erupted in Lima and other parts of the country, leaving at least 25 people dead. Many of the protesters are supporters of Mr. Castillo who say that they feel robbed of their vote. They have demanded the shutdown of Congress, the drafting of a new constitution and new elections.
A state of emergency. The government of Peru declared a nationwide state of emergency on Dec. 14. The measure suspended the rights of assembly and freedom of transit, among other civil liberties, for 30 days. It was an extraordinary action even in a country accustomed to political upheaval and protest.
Tourism to the site began to grow in 1983 when UNESCO declared the area a world heritage site.
The surrounding region, known as the Sacred Valley, has also seen an enormous rise in tourists in recent decades.
In 2019, visits to Machu Picchu hit 1.5 million people, most of them foreigners. The number of tourists climbed so high that many feared for its physical integrity, and the government began limiting entry.
But Rolando Mendoza, Cusco’s head of tourism,said that the regional tourism sector had been hit hard by the pandemic and the government’s strict lockdowns, and was still recovering when the protests began.
This year, officials had hoped to get at least one million visitors. Mr. Mendoza estimated that because of the protests, it will be more like 700,000 to 800,000 visitors by year’s end.
Protests erupted in Peru in early December after the country’s leftist leader, Pedro Castillo, attempted to dissolve Congress and install a new government that would rule by decree — actions that fell outside the limits placed on the president by the constitution.
The move was widely condemned as an attempted coup and Mr. Castillo was soon arrested on charges of rebellion. His vice president, Dina Boluarte, a former ally, soon took office.
But Mr. Castillo’s supporters, many of them from poor, rural regions, have taken to the streets to demand new general elections, with many also calling for his restitution, sometimes closing down highways with burning tires, vandalizing government buildings and throwing rocks in the streets.
At least 26 people have died as a result of the protests, according to the national ombudsman’s office, and various human rights groups, including Amnesty International, have accused the police and military of a disproportionate use of force against protesters.
In clashes between the military and demonstrators on Thursday in the city of Ayacucho, nine protesters were killed, including a 15-year-old boy.
At least 356 civilians and 290 police officers have been injured during the protests, according to the ombudsman.
By Monday, the number of protests had dwindled across the country, though groups were calling for a fresh strike starting this week, making it unclear if the country was seeing an end to unrest — or just a brief respite.
Since taking office, Ms. Boluarte, a leftist from a largely poor region, has attempted to strike a conciliatory tone, calling for unity in a deeply divided nation and addressing the nation in Quechua, the Indigenous language spoken by many of Mr. Castillo’s supporters.
But she has also declared a state of emergency, suspending many civil liberties, and sent the military into the streets in some places — actions that seem to be alienating the very protesters she is trying to calm.
On Sunday, in interviews with the national press, she said that protester deaths should be investigated by the military’s justice system instead of by public prosecutors, a move that could mean lighter sentences for soldiers accused of abuse. The declaration was immediately criticized by legal experts, who said a previous case in the Supreme Court, as well as international law, had made it clear that allegations of human rights abuses should be investigated in the civilian system.
A day before, the country’s antiterrorism police raided the offices of a leftist party and of a campesino organization in downtown Lima, detaining several protesters for hours.
The police accused them of planning to commit violence at demonstrations, showing reporters weapons like slingshots and machetes confiscated from protesters, though the protesters said these were planted. Human rights groups denounced the raids as an illegal intimidation tactic by authorities.
As the raid unfolded, Ms. Boluarte addressed the crisis in a televised presentation with the head of the armed forces, a figure who is supposed to be focused narrowly on external threats in Peru.
“I am very sorry for the deaths of these people,” she said, speaking of the dead protesters. “We are building bridges to be able to meet with the leaders of these social movements. But in violence, you cannot dialogue. Calm down.”
Barring the possibility of Mr. Castillo’s reinstatement, protesters have called for new elections to be held as quickly as possible, while Congress recently voted down an effort to move them up to December 2023, far ahead of their scheduled 2026 date.
An Ipsos poll for America Television that was released on Sunday showed about 85 percent of respondents supported new general elections, and 33 percent also supported what the poll called Mr. Castillo’s “coup,” a figure that rose to 52 percent in rural Peru.
Another poll showed only 17 percent were satisfied with how Peru’s democracy is working, the lowest level since at least 2006.
Even among some whose livelihoods were being upended by the protests, there was some support.
In interviews, people who work in the region’s tourism industry said they sympathized with the protesters’ motivations, though they disagreed with the violence and hoped that a solution would come soon.
“Among friends who work in tourism we talk and there’s always this concern about political issues that can result in these kinds of blockades,” said David Mora, 41, who runs a small tourism company.
“But these strikes have been very aggressive,” he added. “These haven’t been normal protests, and there’s been a lot of repression from the authorities, the police and the army, too.”
Mitra Taj reported from Lima, Peru; Genevieve Glatsky from Philadelphia; and Julie Turkewitz from Ayacucho, Peru.